Learning and Motivation

Motivation in instruction means factoring incentives and reasons is important for designing effective instruction. What is instructional design and what are the concepts and theories that have the stated design component? It is the process of arranging resources and procedures to bring on changes in learning outcomes. The design is applied to improving learning, work, and the development of various characteristics in people.

The design is systematic and aims to bring about replicable processes and principles. The model can be applied to online learning, distance learning, and e-learning environments. Before getting into the development of your instruction, take a look at your learners. Put yourself in his/her mind.

What is their drive for coming to you for learning? This applies to all form of design and instruction including e-learning and online an distance education. Motivation can be intrinsic- coming from the learner, or extrinsic- the need for grades, promotion, increased status, etc.

Motivation Theories: ARCS Model of Motivation

Motivation strategies in online distance learning and e-learning should be identified early in the process so as to enhance the learning outcomes. According to Keller, there are four categories of these strategies: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction. Being engaged can be intrinsic, i.e. coming from the learner, or extrinsic, i.e. the need for grades, promotion, increased status, etc. Using Keller’s ARCS model can make learning a more positive experience.

  1. Attention: Perceptual attention-getters, as the instruction begins and continuing throughout, such as colors, style, sound, humor, novelty, interaction and involvement are essential.
  2. Relevance: Use meaningful examples to create contextual links between the learner and the content you are teaching. Utilize the results of your needs assessment to get an understanding of your learners and their reason for seeking or requiring your instruction.
  3. Confidence: Success as the learner moves through your instruction will keep your learner engaged and will increase his/her positive response to the experience. Design the instruction with small steps, self-pacing if possible, and immediate feedback to provide confidence-building experiences.
  4. Satisfaction: Appropriate acknowledgment of instructional content and developing the desire to continue the pursuit of similar goals.

ARCS Model

ARCS Motivation Model

  1. Variability
  2. Humor
  3. Concreteness
  4. Cognitive conflict
  5. Inquiry
  6. Participation
  1. Experience
  2. Present worth
  3. Future usefulness
  4. Need matching
  5. Modeling
  6. Choice
  1. Learning requirements
  2. Difficulty
  3. Expectations
  4. Attributions
  5. Self-confidence
  1. Natural consequences
  2. Unexpected rewards
  3. Positive outcomes
  4. Avoiding negative influences
  5. Scheduling of reinforcements

Good instruction builds motivation strategies aspects into their instructional plan. You can request additional information from these schools on how their programs are structured.